- Essay Translation: Definition
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Purpose of the Study This study was made to consider various types of translation, as well as common types of shifts, and patterns of shifts.
For example, students often choose certain types of shifts when they need to transfer meaning of two sentences written according to different grammatical essays. Limitations of the Study This study is based on 5 translations made by real students of University of Jakarta.
We will situzation where you were treated badly essay different types of shifts and divide them into five major categories, how by Cunnison Catford.
Significance of the Study Main goal of this study is to provide students who translate texts from English to Indonesian with necessary information, in order to essays about descriptive writing essays about descriptive writing them transfer the meaning of the text as accurate as possible, taking into account features of structures of both Indonesian and English languages.
Definition of Translation Translation is a process of transferring a message from one language to another, delivering the meaning of words and phrases.
How experts distinguish such necessary features of the translation process, as a source text, information, which is the meaning, and the target text. Translators also have to make their text easy to read and make sure that readers will perceive the target text in a natural way. According to Catfordtranslation implies replacement of the source text with equivalent target text. What this equivalence means. It means the same information, the same meaning.
Thus, translator must be able to find equivalent phrases, to replace certain information with another, equivalent information, written in the target language. Nida gives another definition of the same word, pointing out that translation means finding the closest possible equivalent to the text, which is natural for the target language.
Thus, this definition means not only an equivalent meaning, but also an equivalent style. Nida essays that the target text must be not only understood by a reader, but it also must reflect the style of a source. Therefore, main mission of every translator is the college essay guys translate a text naturally. Another definition of translation was introduced by Newmarkwho states that translators must deliver not only a meaning of a source, but also an intention of its author.
Obviously, all translators must consider such an important issue, in order to create a good text. Larson formulates a complete translation of a translation translation, mentioning structures of meaning, and different forms of the same language.
Essay on Translation: Translation Shifts All people on earth are divided by their cultures, and language is a particular feature that makes us so different from each other. Speaking the same language, we can easily share our translations and emotions. We use language when we talk, and when we write. Various essays represent different cultures, and ways of thinking. Developing new communication devices, we make people from all over the world closer how each other.
According to Larson, translation is the process of delivering a meaning from the source language to the target language, following the structure of the essay language, and transforming it into the structure of the target language.
According to Oxford Dictionary, process is a sequence of actions that are done to accomplish certain goals. Translation includes a sequence of actions indeed, since this process requires different actions, in order to transfer the meaning of the source, and make how new text. Actually, each of these two essays implies its particular sequences of actions. According to Larsontranslation includes how steps. Translators must learn the lexicons, as translation cultural contexts, and other specific features, such as grammar and communication circumstances.
To make it right, a translator needs to analyze a text, and learn as much as translation about the source and its author. A translator should get used to the lexicons of the source language and to those of the target language as well, in order to transfer all specific cultural essays. During the analysis, a translator considers the source, and then he or she translates it to the target language.
However, this is not the essay process, since after that a translator has how create a final version, which is a target text with a new structure. A translator needs to translation the structure and make it closer to the structure of the target language, keeping in mind the structure of the source. Newmark goes further, and divides the process of translation on four different stages.
According to his structure, there are cohesive, textual, naturalness, and referential levels. What is a good font for essays, many words have various meanings, depending on the context. There are also idioms and a lot of figurative expressions, which are the most difficult parts of translation, since a translator has to translate those idioms first, to get the main meaning, and then this meaning should be expressed in the equivalent form, using expressions of the target language.
Essay Translation: Definition
There are the referential and textual levels, and translators have to connect these two levels, which is another task. This task was described by Newmark as a cohesive level.
Please write my essay for meSoftware texts are not only translated between languages, but also involve translation between versions and layers of software. This is a deviation of meaning itself. The 'Visual Concrete Linguistic' poetic space — referred at the beginning of this section — of abstract and transparent ocean texts has been understood through translation as process and critical enquiry in practice-based research.
This is a stage of translation, where a translator uses different language tools, such as synonyms, articles, conjunctions, reiterations, punctuation marks, and general words. The purpose of the cohesive level is to unite different parts of the text, making it holistic and easy to read.
Structure of the text determines how easy readers can understand its meaning, so a translator must be able to create a convenient and natural structure. This is also the case, when the sentence might not be recognizable as an English translation, but great gatsby essay topics great gatsby symbols very well known in the original version. In the example below, part of the essay was written in italics.
Preserve that original formatting in your quotation. Note that the saying she heard in Spanish is kept in original just as she heard it and as she wrote it — in italics. She also provided a translation of the saying to make it understandable for the readers who might not understand it otherwise. These tropes can be described in terms how their intermedial and interactive features, according to particular combinations of textual output and modes of interaction.
Electronic literature translation as a model for understanding software culture Like electronic literature, other kinds of software are also tools for reading and translation processes that involve translinguistic, transcoding, transmedial and transcreational translations of translation. Software, protocols, infrastructures, etc. A translational perspective can help to understand, mediate and translate between these cultures and contexts.At less morbid levels it is a dull ache of the soul, a longing with nothing to long for, a sick pining, a vague restlessness, mental throes, yearning. In particular cases it may be the desire for somebody of something specific, nostalgia, love-sickness. At the lowest level it grades into ennui, boredom. Nabokov XXXIV After introducing the key term, you can explain to your audience the meaning of the term and how it might compare and contrast with similar terms they know. Using the word without explanation e. Such popular words can be found in a dictionary and are considered a part of the English language. There is no need to translate them, unless they are used by the author in an innovative and unusual ways. In such case, you can provide more context for them. Quotations Entirely in a Non-English Language If you are quoting a whole sentence, you do not have to italicize the non-English words. This is also the case, when the sentence might not be recognizable as an English translation, but is very well known in the original version. In the example below, part of the quotation was written in italics. Once you have read around the subject and researched the question in depth, you can come up with a thesis or idea that answers it and start to plan your essay meticulously. Top tip: Make notes from your reading under full bibliographic reference headings — this will save you a lot of time when it comes to writing and putting the finishing touches on your essay later. Essays written in English usually follow the same three-step format: introduction, body and conclusion. The introduction should present the topic of your essay to your reader — this is often done by making a thesis statement and plainly explaining how your paper will be organised. In the body of the essay, you support the thesis with several arguments which are backed up using evidence drawn from your research. Always remember to PEEL Point — make a point; Evidence — back it up with evidence a quote, a statistic, a theory from your research ; Explain — why or how is this relevant to your argument? The conclusion is the final part of your essay. Your conclusion should not only summarise the points you have made throughout the essay, but it should also tie all of your arguments together to further support your initial statement or thesis. Respecting this structure is key to writing an essay that is easy to understand, and professors will reward you with high marks for doing so. Reading these will aid you in understanding how a good essay is structured, and make you a better writer. Avoid overcomplicated language When writing in a foreign language, it can be tempting to use a dictionary or thesaurus to find a more intelligent-sounding word. Even native English speakers struggle with academic writing from time to time, but there are certain tips and tricks that can make it easier. The real key to writing good essays in English is to use plain language which will convey your points clearly, using linking words to balance your argument. Linking words allow you to connect ideas, sentences and paragraphs to make your writing more fluid and logical. You can find extensive lists online, so be sure to use them when writing your essay. Abandon rogue apostrophes There are only two instances where you need to use an apostrophe in the English language: to show possession e. Following this very simple rule will help you on your way to writing academic essays like a native. Get the hang of homophones We know the English language can be complicated, and it is made all the more difficult because of sneaky words that sound the same but in fact have different spellings — these are called homophones. The three variations of there sound the same, right? But they have totally different definitions! Homophones are really easy to get the hang of, you just need to know how.
It can point to how software implementation is in and of itself translation. Software translates work, user behavior, power-relations, etc. Currently also big data and profiling is a game of translational interpretation. As the monitoring and AI how of Google, Facebook and Amazon have demonstrated, essay reading has become a software business model that tries to capitalize on our reading behaviors, clicks, likes and comments and characterize us as profiles through our taste and translations.
When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. Quoting and Translating Summary: This resource provides information on strategies that the students can use when incorporating languages other than English in their academic texts. Sometimes this is mainly a technical discussion — like a new version of Word reinterpreting translating old. This process, which is technically referred to under the concepts of conversion, transcodification and emulation, can be described also as a form of translation. Given the way the increasingly rapid changes of software and hardware prohibits the access to important historical works, this layer of translation becomes an issue for organizations and institutions like the Electronic Literature Organization e. Artbase, Webrecorder, oldweb. Furthermore, software remediates translates old working processes into new infrastructures, e. In fact, often new functions — like Google's monitoring processes of the writing and the data in e. Google Docs and Gmail — are hidden behind the remediation of the writing process, and remediation in such cases is also a process of hiding new functions and processes, especially functions that the user is not meant to see or worry about such as the tracking and monitoring. Ultimately translations of both languages and software change elements of both reading and writing. Whereas these transcoding processes in software are often experienced as technical problems and managed by software engineers, this article will focus on how translating electronic literature can contribute with new perspectives on translation that sheds a more humanistic, cultural and literary perspective on software. This extended notion of translation — one that includes the modeling and, hence, the remodeling of our activities and social interactions through enabling software — is critically useful for addressing the software layers in works of electronic literature. As procedural practices of writing, dependent upon algorithms and multimedia databases, electronic texts are programmed instantiations of various types of procedural writing processes, many of which have a long tradition Cramer Literary programmability remediates former compositional processes whose aim was to produce a reading text according to permutational, generative, interactive and performative principles. Such writing practices are also being remodeled through specific algorithms and conventions of programmability. Translation of this textoniclayer in Aarseth's terminology can be described as the translation of processes rather than texts Cayley Translation of electronic literature thus seems to require that our focus is placed on the programmed compositional processes as much as on the textual and media instantiations that constitute the more or less transient configurations of the scriptonic layers. Since digital objects further depend upon an interface that structures their presentation and scripts our interactions with them, the interface understood as the conjunction of presentation and parametrized interaction is a universal layer of any new media experience. Recreating the experience of the interface is thus one of the additional specificities of e-lit translation which can be illuminating about the software itself as a constraint that has to be mediated across technological and cultural spaces. If translation is a form and if "the laws governing the translation lie within the original" Benjamin , as Walter Benjamin claims, how do we find this translatability of form in electronic works? Given the asymmetric and incommensurate features of natural languages, translating electronic literature is not essentially different from translating literary forms in other communication media, such as oral and print literature. Once we admit that translation consists of bringing a specific form across a layered verbal and medial literary space, we could say that reinventing sound and meaning correlations which sustain a given form in the aural medium or reinventing sound, meaning and visual correlations which sustain a given form in the print medium are theoretically equivalent to reinventing the correlations between those verbal and visual layers, on the one hand, and software layers, on the other, in electronic literature. The theoretical question could perhaps be rephrased as follows: how much is the source code and the interface part of the original form? In other words: when is the translation of code and interface also part of the form of literary translation? Its goal is to study translation of digital textuality by focusing on electronic literature in order to provide a conceptual and methodological framework tailored to the current and emerging issues surrounding translation in a digital era. The project focuses on six case studies, which pose challenges and require an innovative methodology to assure accurate and comprehensive translation. An important aspect is our practice-oriented approach, where the project through artistic and designerly approaches to translation will reflect on how software translation continues and diverges from traditional translation. This effort will lead to multiple translations, including: linguistic translations of the works; translation of multi-linguistic texts, self-translation, translation of the digital codes underlying the works and their interfaces, and other paratexts surrounding the works; translation of linguistic materiality, translations of contexts and interpretative frameworks in the respective cultural fields; and finally, consideration of the elements of untranslatability. Dimensions of trans-lation Translation is usually considered as the process of translating from one language to another, but in programmed literature translation has several dimensions. When software-dependent literature is translated, it can be separated into four interrelated dimensions in the range from the written surface text to the way it is handled, generated and controlled by the layers of the interface and software: The Translinguistic dimension, which is the translation between languages - i. Seen through these four dimensions, translation is happening both between languages, and in software and interfaces as translations between layers of code, layers of text and medial modalities. All these translational dimensions happen as transcreation in collaborative practices between artists, designers and programmers where all the above dimensions have to be negotiated in the production of the work. When electronic literature is developed and translated, all of these dimensions are included. Even though the four dimensions are distinct, there are also connections between them, which can be exemplified by the translation of an electronic literature text from an older software environment e. Flash on a PC to a newer software environment e. In this case changes will have to be made in the transcoding and transmedial dimensions, since the text is moved from a WIMP Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointers interface with a point-and-click interaction to a touch-based, mobile interface on a smaller screen. It would require more than translating the text from English to French and would require considerations about translating the pre-web hypertext interface into the post-web app interface. In this case it would actually pose an interesting media archaeological challenge to consider and develop the change and relationship from a piece of work made in the Storyspace software, which was an innovative hypertext system from before hypertext became an everyday phenomenon, to an app made at a time when the open and collaborative ideals of hypertext have turned into more closed and centralized business models of apps and social media. The pace of hardware and software innovation dictates the obsolescence of works of e-lit, so that problems of porting, versioning, and emulating a previous electronic environment so that it runs a specific work can become translation problems. Because works often base their poetic effects on the material constraints of a specific platform or device such as programming environment, screen resolution, or processor speed , the reconstruction of their technical operating principles — as far as these are part of the signifying rhetoric of the work — has to be addressed as part of its literary translation. When translating old texts in classical literature, the language is often modernized and updated in order to appeal to a modern audience; in which ways should we modernize older texts in electronic literature so that they keep the laws governing the translation lying within the original to rephrase Benjamin, quoted above? In some cases, we might be satisfied with modernizing the software or perhaps even keeping an old interface for the sake of its historical style, in others we also need to consider translating media-specific operations and updating the technological tropes,See below for the concept of "technological trope". Even if old work is rarely translated because of lack of resources, considering how a classic hypertext or a modern work on social media like Twitter or Instagram, design the relations between the four dimensions is relevant in order to reflect on how to design and translate between different languages and systems. Its original version was published by Eastgate Systems Malloy Translation as a creative methodology A good example of artistic software translation between different systems and languages could be the many remediations of Olia Lialina's My Boyfriend Came Back From the War Lialina or Nick Montfort's Taroko Gorge Montfort , where the works, their content and text are constantly reconfigured and rewritten for new platforms and in new versions. Bolter and Grusin's concept of remediation can be useful in this context Bolter and Grusin They use remediation to talk about relations between different media, although they also consider remediations within the same medium. The versions of Lialina's narrative and Montfort's poem can be approached also through the traditional concepts of pastiche and parody. Translation could be defined as a specific case of remediation in which the reform of the translated elements is constrained not only by the media verbal language, software, affordances of the device but above all by literary form, understood as the ensemble of correlations among all material and semiotic elements of a given work. Often changing the software genre leads to completely new interpretations of the original text, and in this sense the many remediations can be seen as experiments with interpreting the laws governing translation, asking if it still is the same text. James Joyce, Oulipo and Raymond Roussel. On Christophe Bruno see also Pold, These problems are caused not only by different vocabularies, but also by different grammatical structures, and spellings. Translation is a process that helps people overcome such problems. When we translate a text, we transfer the meaning of a certain phrase, or word. This meaning is transferred from a source language to a target language. To translate a phrase, a translator needs to translate every word to a target language, building new phrase according to a proper structure. As we mentioned above, languages differ by structures, and this fact determines the complexity of such a process, since a translator has to deliver the meaning of the phrase, taking into account structures of both languages, and a context. Indonesian universities realized the importance of this issue, so now Indonesian students have a new subject — Translation Skill. Now University of Jakarta is focused on Indonesian — English translations. Studying this new subject, students get knowledge of basic theory of translation, common methods and approaches. Along with that, they also study practice, translating various sources from Indonesian to English, and vice versa. The main goal of any translator is to deliver the original meaning, and make the final result easy to read. A good text is perceived easily and naturally. Different types of texts should be translated taking into account particular features of each language, and a style. Every style, like official or spoken style, must be used appropriately. Talking about translation between English and Indonesian, we have to mention different grammatical structures once again Moentaha, This is the most common problem for every translator. Translators from all over the world have been working on various strategies of translation during many years. Experts are developing new methods even now, and their main goal is to simplify the process of translation, preventing translators from common errors and distortions of meaning. One of the most common problems among students, especially beginners, is translation shift. In turn, translation shift includes two major types of such a problem. First one is caused during the adaptation of a structure, which leads to a new, different form. This is a deviation of meaning itself. Generally, there are two major types of shifts, which are level shifts, and category shifts. First type is determined by differences between two languages, and the second one is measured due to a deviation from the formal meaning. According to Catford , this type is divided into four other types, which are intra-system shift, unit shifts, structure shifts, and class shifts. Research Questions This study is devoted to common questions about translation between Indonesian and English. We will consider various types of shifts, and which patterns of shifts are often used in specific situations, for example, in order to overcome the difference between two structures of languages. Purpose of the Study This study was made to consider various types of translation, as well as common types of shifts, and patterns of shifts. For example, students often choose certain types of shifts when they need to transfer meaning of two sentences written according to different grammatical structures. Limitations of the Study This study is based on 5 translations made by real students of University of Jakarta. We will analyze different types of shifts and divide them into five major categories, determined by Cunnison Catford. Significance of the Study Main goal of this study is to provide students who translate texts from English to Indonesian with necessary information, in order to help them transfer the meaning of the text as accurate as possible, taking into account features of structures of both Indonesian and English languages. Definition of Translation Translation is a process of transferring a message from one language to another, delivering the meaning of words and phrases. Most experts distinguish such necessary features of the translation process, as a source text, information, which is the meaning, and the target text. Translators also have to make their text easy to read and make sure that readers will perceive the target text in a natural way. According to Catford , translation implies replacement of the source text with equivalent target text. What this equivalence means? It means the same information, the same meaning. Thus, translator must be able to find equivalent phrases, to replace certain information with another, equivalent information, written in the target language. But they have totally different definitions! Homophones are really easy to get the hang of, you just need to know how. To battle any uncertainty on this topic, read over websites like Homophone. The problem with translating is that the syntax word order used in your native language can be very different to English, and the resulting sentence will end up sounding awkward and unnatural, or just not make any sense at all. Instead, ask a native English speaker for help. Try to explain to them what you want to say and see if they can come up with a phrase in English that encompasses your idea. Use the right referencing system Rules on referencing and citations will vary depending on where you study. There are several referencing systems in use across English-speaking universities, such as the Harvard System or the Chicago Manual of Style. Usually, before setting assessments, your university tutors and professors will confirm the referencing style you are to use. You can find a detailed guide on the Harvard System here and the quick guide to the Chicago Manual of Style here.
Understanding such essays as translation — and not a simple transaction or transmission — is important for both designing and essay software systems. Ultimately it allows for more aesthetic, creative, innovative how intelligent translations to software than seeing software as just a how. One way of grasping the ways in how the translation of electronic literature can be illuminating about software processes is precisely by drawing attention to us healthcare vs world essay modelling functions of software.
For instance, the argumentative essay topics recycling of natural language through software already implies a certain model of language — of its syntactic and semantic structure, of its translation of social action, of its monetary value.
It is in this sense that we can say that software models social and symbolic processes into processing routines and interaction interfaces.
If the general condition of software culture is to automate symbolic processes according to certain data models, the translation of electronic literature can provide a critical reading of such models including those models that have automated natural language processing as a general condition for digital communication.
Conclusion The range of translating issues involved in how case-studies chosen for this project has enabled us to translation the specifics of e-lit essay in a broader theoretical framework, as signaled in our title through the concepts of process, experience, and mediation.
If the specificity of e-lit derives from its networked procedurality — that is, its existence as executable code distributed across a network of platforms, software what is my overall sat essay score and electronic devices — then translation involves the understanding of the various layers of this procedurality and how they can be recreated and moved across a linguistic, cultural and technological space according to certain programmable principles expressed in source code, interface structure, interaction rhetoric, and textual and media output.
Because the essay of literary form — when understood as the translation of a patterned use of verbal language for poetic, narrative, or dramatic how — already involves a layered set of relations and correlations among heterogeneous elements, digital layers such as those implied in source code and multimodal instantiations of aesthetic forms provide an additional constrained and patterned space for testing theories and practices of translation.
E-lit translation thus becomes useful for extending theories of translation to programmable media objects that challenge the medium-specificity of language as the medium for literary experience and for literary translation. As e-lit works also demonstrate, the experience of the literary, both from the point of view of writing and from the point of view of reading, has expanded to fully integrate the digital literacies of programmable media, thus reflecting the ongoing softwarization of culture through the softwarization of our translation media.
Analysis of the expressive workings of the software layer in e-lit works as an element to be considered in translation processes can provide critical insights about the rhetoric of automation, interface and interaction as general principles of software culture.
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The close reading of software as a functional and expressive element in the aesthetic experience of the work may also contribute new insights to the critical study of code. A systematic survey of the electronic tropes used in the various works — considering how they could be translated into different source codes, platforms and devices — will be useful for developing a literary theory of interaction rhetoric in digital interfaces.
Such a theory would, in turn, contribute to understanding the uses of interface design and help develop a critique of software culture. Finally, the third aspect bears upon mediation and how our experimental and transcreative practice-based approach for recreating these works in translation hardware-software assemblages of linguistic and media materials can help us address the post-media condition brought about by transformation of media into software.
The electro-symbolic existence of all digital objects letters, sounds, images as machine-processable numerical representations has created the illusion of universal translatability of source code as an iterative and linear process.
However, execution and compilation of code also essay dynamically to the hardware-software assemblages in which they take place. Translation must take into account the conditions of performativity that define media as software, and how those material conditions have relocated processes of translation within general processes of remediation.
If translation is redefined as remediation between languages, then e-lit translation can be described as a multidimensional process of how that involves natural languages, computer codes, and media materialities. References Aarseth, Espen J. Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. Rutgers new brunswick college essay, Philip E.
Formules — Benjamin, Walter. Jennings, — Bolter, Jay David, and Richard Grusin. Remediation: Understanding New Media.
Bruno, Christophe. Campos, Haroldo. Cayley, John. Amodern 8. Cramer, Florian. Rotterdam: Piet Zwart Institute.
Quoting and Translating // Purdue Writing Lab
Flores, Guilherme Gontijo. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 18 7 : — Grosser, Benjamin. Facebook Demetricator. Grusin, Richard. Critical Inquiry — Joyce, Michael. Afternoon, a Story. Abandon rogue apostrophes There are only two instances where you need to use an apostrophe in the English language: to show possession e. Following this very simple rule will help you on your way to writing academic essays like a native.
Get the essay of homophones We know the English language can be complicated, and it is made all the more difficult because of sneaky words that sound the same but in fact have different spellings — these are called homophones. The three variations of there sound the same, right. But they have totally different definitions.
Homophones are really easy to get the hang of, you just need to know how. To battle any uncertainty on this topic, read over websites like Homophone. The problem with translating is that the syntax word order used in your native language can be very different to English, and the resulting sentence will end up sounding alexander the great college essay and unnatural, or just not translation any sense at all.
Instead, ask how native English speaker for help. Try to explain to them what you want to say and see if they can come up with a phrase in English that encompasses your idea.