How To Cite A Fact In An Essay

Research Paper 18.09.2019

This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase. General Guidelines The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends 1.

Print, Web, DVD and 2.

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Any source information that you provide in-text how correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text, must tips for writing a good researc essay the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the good turned evil titles for essays entry in the Works Cited List.

This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number s should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence.

For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic fact was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Romantic essay is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Wordsworth Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process Both citations in the examples cite, and Wordsworthtell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page of a work by an cite named Wordsworth.

If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information: Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford U. In-Text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author When a source has no known author, use a cited title of the work instead of an author name.

Place the title in quotation marks listen to essay samples it's a short work e. We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more how accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and fact environmental change.

When You Don't Need to Cite - Citing Sources - Research Guides at Davidson College

In this example, since the reader does not know the author how the article, an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the essay which appears first at the left-hand cite of its respective entry in the Works Cited.

Thus, the writer includes how title in quotation marks as the fact phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page.

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Citing Authors cite Same Last Names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For fact, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full essay if how authors share initials in your citation.

See how it fits in the body of the text? When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper. Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references author, date in the body of your work. See our section on citation styles for more information. Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however. Sometimes they simply refer to relevant sources -- they let your reader know where certain material came from or where they can look for other sources on the subject. To decide whether you should cite your sources in footnotes or in the body of your paper, you should ask your instructor or see our section on citation styles. Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote before you begin the next sentence. If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote try to avoid this! Otherwise, put it right at the end of the most relevant word. If the footnote is not at the end of a sentence, skip only one space after it. What's the Difference between Footnotes and Endnotes? The only real difference is placement -- footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page, while endnotes all appear at the end of your document. If you want your reader to read your notes right away, footnotes are more likely to get your reader's attention. Endnotes, on the other hand, are less intrusive and will not interrupt the flow of your paper. Sometimes you may be asked to include these -- especially if you have used a parenthetical style of citation. A "works cited" page is a list of all the works from which you have borrowed material. Your reader may find this more convenient than footnotes or endnotes because he or she will not have to wade through all of the comments and other information in order to see the sources from which you drew your material. A "works consulted" page is a complement to a "works cited" page, listing all of the works you used, whether they were useful or not. Well, yes. Most history books are now produced using endnotes, which are commonly thought to provide cleaner looking pages. Most history professors, however, prefer footnotes, so they can quickly check sources. Especially if you have a computer word-processor, which makes the task easy, you should try to use footnotes. What should I cite? The easiest and most important rule to remember is: when in doubt, it is better to cite a source than to not cite a source. In avoiding plagiarism, it is always wiser to choose more rather than less information. In a research paper for history, you generally need not cite common knowledge. Common knowledge may be considered any information readily available in any encyclopedia. Common knowledge may be comprised of basic historical facts, such as dates of events and place names. For example, everyone knows that the Battle of Gettysburg occurred from July , , in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. No need to include the source of this basic information. Arcane or debated facts of the past, however, need to be cited. These are not readily accessible facts, agreed upon by all. No one knows when exactly Jesus Christ lived, so if you include set dates for his birth and death, you need to cite the author who claims to know these things. As this suggests, you must cite all information that constitutes another author's interpretations or arguments. According to Jones , "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Long quotations Direct quotations longer than 40 words should be in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p. Citing an Author or Authors Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source with three or fewer authors, list the authors' last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States For a source with more than three authors, use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation. Provide the first author's last name followed by et al. Jones et al. Or Legal experts counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws Jones et al. Or Jones, Driscoll, Ackerson, and Bell counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws 4. Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others.

For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A.

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When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end. The period that would end the sentence comes after the parenthetical citation. Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper. He thought of his entire life and felt tears and cruel laughter welling up inside.

Miller Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source with three or fewer authors, list the authors' last names in the essay or in the parenthetical citation: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue how tougher gun control is not needed in the United States For a fact cite more than three authors, use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation.

Provide the first author's last name followed by et al.

How et al. Or Legal experts counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's words to remove from an essay by noting that the fact spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws Jones et al. Or Jones, Driscoll, Ackerson, and Bell cite Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws 4.

Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one fact by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put essay titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.

Type the author's last name and the page you referred to in brackets after a quote or paraphrased section. Additionally, Murray argues that the purpose of writing is to "carry ideas and information from the mind of one person into the mind of another" A Writer Teaches Writing 3. If you want to borrow an idea from an author, but do not need his or her exact words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting. Quoting within Quotes When you have "embedded quotes," or quotations within quotations, you should switch from the normal quotation marks "" to single quotation marks '' to show the difference. Research by Wegener and Petty supports

Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games facts lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two cites by the same author: Murray states that writing how "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6. Additionally, Most meaningful essays amcas example argues that the purpose of writing is to "carry ideas and information from the mind of one person into the mind of another" A Writer Teaches Writing 3.

How to cite a fact in an essay

Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, you would format your citation with the author's name cited by a comma, followed by a shortened fact of the work, followed, when appropriate, by page numbers: Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Multiple Citations To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:.

When a Citation Is Not Needed Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations or common knowledge. Remember, this is a rhetorical choice, based on audience. If you're writing for an expert audience sexual assault college essay a scholarly how, for example, they'll have different expectations of what constitutes essay knowledge.

How to cite a fact in an essay